1. One Color Challenge
  2. Color 1
  3. One Coloring
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Black-and-white monochrome: the Eiffel Tower during the 1889 Exposition Universelle
Color monochrome: night vision devices usually produce monochrome images, typically in shades of green
A photograph of a macaw rendered with a monochrome palette of a limited number of shades

A monochromic[1] image is composed of one color (or values of one color).[2] The term monochrome comes from the Ancient Greek: μονόχρωμος, romanized: monochromos, lit.'having one color'.

A monochromatic object or image reflects colors in shades of limited colors or hues. Images using only shades of grey (with or without black or white) are called grayscale or black-and-white. However, scientifically speaking, monochromatic light refers to visible light of a narrow band of wavelengths (see spectral color).

Application[edit]

  1. Color charts Hexadecimal color code chart. Colors can specified as a hexadecimal RGB triplet, such as '#0066CC'.The first two digits are the level of red, the next two green, and the last two blue.
  2. The color name dim gray first came into use in 1987, when this color was formulated as one of the colors on the X11 color list, introduced that year. After the invention of the World Wide Web in 1991, these colors became known as the 'X11 web colors'.

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Of an image, the term monochrome is usually taken to mean the same as black and white or, more likely, grayscale, but may also be used to refer to other combinations containing only tones of a single color, such as green-and-white or green-and-red. It may also refer to sepia displaying tones from light tan to dark brown or cyanotype ('blueprint') images, and early photographic methods such as daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, and tintypes, each of which may be used to produce a monochromatic image.

In computing, monochrome has two meanings:

  • it may mean having only one color which is either on or off (also known as a binary image),
  • allowing shades of that color.

A monochrome computer display is able to display only a single color, often green, amber, red or white, and often also shades of that color.

In film photography, monochrome is typically the use of black-and-white film.Originally, all photography was done in monochrome. Although color photography was possible even in the late 19th century, easily used color films, such as Kodachrome, were not available until the mid-1930s.

In digital photography, monochrome is the capture of only shades of black by the sensor, or by post-processing a color image to present only the perceived brightness by combining the values of multiple channels (usually red, blue, and green). The weighting of individual channels may be selected to achieve a desired artistic effect; if only the red channel is selected by the weighting then the effect will be similar to that of using a red filter on panchromatic film. If the red channel is eliminated and the green and blue combined then the effect will be similar to that of orthochromatic film or the use of a cyan filter on panchromatic film. The selection of weighting thus allows a wide range of artistic expression in the final monochromatic image.

For production of an anaglyph image the original color stereogram source may first be reduced to monochrome in order to simplify the rendering of the image. This is sometimes required in cases where a color image would render in a confusing manner given the colors and patterns present in the source image and the selection filters used (typically red and its complement, cyan).[3]

In physics[edit]

In physics, monochromatic light is electromagnetic radiation of a single frequency. In the context of physics, no source of electromagnetic radiation is purely monochromatic, since that would require a wave of infinite duration as a consequence of the Fourier transform's localization property (cf. spectral coherence). Even very controlled sources such as lasers operate in a range of frequencies (known as the spectral linewidth). In practice, filtered light, diffraction grating separated light and laser light are all routinely referred to as monochromatic. Often light sources can be compared and one be labeled as “more monochromatic” (in a similar usage as monodispersity). A device which isolates a narrow band of frequencies from a broader-bandwidth source is called a monochromator, even though the bandwidth is often explicitly specified, and thus a collection of frequencies is understood.

See also[edit]

Look up monochrome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Duotone – the use of two ink colors in printing
  • Halftone – the use of black and white in a pattern that is perceived as shades of grey (may be extended also to color images)
  • Polychrome – of multiple colors, the opposite of monochrome
  • Monochromacy (color blindness)
  • Selective color – use of monochrome and color selectively within an image
  • Monochrome painting – monochromes in art

References[edit]

  1. ^From the Ancient Greek: μονόχρωμος – monochromos “having one color”.
  2. ^'monochrome', Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2009, retrieved October 16, 2009
  3. ^'Monochromatic'. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. Retrieved March 23, 2013.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monochrome&oldid=990991536'
One
  • Solution
  • Color charts

Problem

You want to use colors in a graph with ggplot2.

Solution

The default colors in ggplot2 can be difficult to distinguish from one another because they have equal luminance. They are also not friendly for colorblind viewers.

A good general-purpose solution is to just use the colorblind-friendly palette below.

Sample data

These two data sets will be used to generate the graphs below.

Simple color assignment

The colors of lines and points can be set directly using colour='red', replacing “red” with a color name. The colors of filled objects, like bars, can be set using fill='red'.

If you want to use anything other than very basic colors, it may be easier to use hexadecimal codes for colors, like '#FF6699'. (See the hexadecimal color chart below.)

Mapping variable values to colors

One color eyeshadow look

Instead of changing colors globally, you can map variables to colors – in other words, make the color conditional on a variable, by putting it inside an aes() statement.

A colorblind-friendly palette

These are color-blind-friendly palettes, one with gray, and one with black.

Color

To use with ggplot2, it is possible to store the palette in a variable, then use it later.

One Color Challenge

This palette is from http://jfly.iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp/color/:

Color selection

By default, the colors for discrete scales are evenly spaced around a HSL color circle. For example, if there are two colors, then they will be selected from opposite points on the circle; if there are three colors, they will be 120° apart on the color circle; and so on.The colors used for different numbers of levels are shown here:

The default color selection uses scale_fill_hue() and scale_colour_hue(). For example, adding those commands is redundant in these cases:

Setting luminance and saturation (chromaticity)

Although scale_fill_hue() and scale_colour_hue() were redundant above, they can be used when you want to make changes from the default, like changing the luminance or chromaticity.

This is a chart of colors with luminance=45:

Color 1

Palettes: Color Brewer

You can also use other color scales, such as ones taken from the RColorBrewer package. See the chart of RColorBrewer palettes below. See the scale section here for more information.

Palettes: manually-defined

Finally, you can define your own set of colors with scale_fill_manual(). See the hexadecimal code chart below for help choosing specific colors.

One Coloring

Continuous colors

[Not complete]

Color

See the scale section here for more information.

Color One Photo

Color charts

Hexadecimal color code chart

Colors can specified as a hexadecimal RGB triplet, such as '#0066CC'. The first two digits are the level of red, the next two green, and the last two blue. The value for each ranges from 00 to FF in hexadecimal (base-16) notation, which is equivalent to 0 and 255 in base-10. For example, in the table below, “#FFFFFF” is white and “#990000” is a deep red.

(Color chart is from http://www.visibone.com)

RColorBrewer palette chart

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