The Amazon Echo Show is not only a smart speaker, it also doubles as a streaming device for your kitchen. With apps like Netflix, YouTube, and Food Network Kitchen, you can follow along with step-by-step recipe videos or your favorite celebrity chefs while you make holiday dinners or weeknight meals. Commute meaning: 1. To make the same journey regularly between work and home: 2. To change one thing into another. Collection: Personal Apps Paid apps. Take the guess work out of your daily commute by seeing real-time traffic and drive times specific to your route right in your Mac menu bar. Primary Sidebar. Search this website.

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Why you should do everything to reduce your commute?

You might have heard the phrase - 'Your commute is killing you'. But what does it really mean? Most of us need to spend a significant time of our life going to and from work and home. The real problems with commute are staying stationary for the time which leads to obesity, increase in heart disease and general anxiety. Shortening your commute is probably one of the more significant alterations you can make to your lifestyle.

Practical ways of slashing your commute

Not everyone can move closer to work or work from home, so what are some realistic ways to deal with your commute to work? If you have a flexible schedule, time your commutes outside of peak traffic hours using Chop Commute or using the Traffic times widget on Google Maps app. You should also try and work remotely on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday since these are days with heaviest traffic. Traffic on the roads are pretty light on Fridays since most other people try to work from home on these days - so you might much as well travel on these days. Finally, explore alternative routes using not just your GPS apps, but by intutition and experimentation as well - you will be suprised as to how many of these are not factored into Apple/Google Maps.

CHOP is the acronym for a chemotherapy regimen used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. CHOP consists of:

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  • Cyclophosphamide, an alkylating agent which damages DNA by binding to it and causing the formation of cross-links
  • Hydroxydaunorubicin (also called doxorubicin or adriamycin), an intercalating agent which damages DNA by inserting itself between DNA bases
  • Oncovin (vincristine), which prevents cells from duplicating by binding to the protein tubulin
  • Prednisone or Prednisolone, which are corticosteroids.

Sometimes the chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, is added to this treatment regimen to form the R-CHOP regimen.

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Dosing regimen[edit]

DrugStandard [R]-CHOP-14 or [R]-CHOP-21[R]-Maxi-CHOPModeDays
(R)ituximab375 mg/m2375 mg/m2IV infusionDay 1
(C)yclophosphamide750 mg/m21200 mg/m2IV infusionDay 1
(H)ydroxydaunorubicin50 mg/m275 mg/m2IV bolusDay 1
(O)ncovin1.4 mg/m2 (max. 2 mg)2 mgIV bolusDay 1
(P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone40 mg/m2100 mgPO qdDays 1-5

R-Maxi-CHOP is used in mantle cell lymphoma and is given in 21-day intervals, alternating with R-HDAC (rituximab + high-dose cytarabine).[1]

In most other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (excluding some aggressive forms), standard-dose [R]-CHOP is generally used as first-line therapy.

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Uses and indications[edit]

Normal cells are more able than cancer cells to repair damage from chemotherapy drugs.

This regimen can also be combined with the monoclonal antibodyrituximab if the lymphoma is of B cell origin; this combination is called R-CHOP. Typically, courses are administered at an interval of two or three weeks (CHOP-14 and CHOP-21 respectively). A stagingCT scan is generally performed after three cycles to assess whether the disease is responding to treatment.

In patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, doxorubicin (which is cardiotoxic) is often deemed to be too great a risk and is omitted from the regimen. The combination is then referred to as COP (cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone or prednisolone) or CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone or prednisolone).

Side-effects and complications[edit]

The combination is generally well tolerated.[2]Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting may require antiemetics (such as ondansetron), and hemorrhagic cystitis is prevented with administration of mesna. Alopecia (hair loss) is common.

Neutropenia generally develops in the second week. During this period, many clinicians recommend pegfilgrastim or prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin.[1] If a fever develops in the neutropenic period, urgent medical assessment is required for neutropenic sepsis, as infections in patients with low neutrophil counts may progress rapidly.

Allopurinol is typically co-administered prophylactically to prevent hyperuricemia that results from tumor lysis syndrome, the result of rapid death of tumor cells.

History[edit]

A pivotal study published in 1993 compared CHOP to several other chemotherapy regimens (e.g. m-BACOD, ProMACE-CytaBOM, MACOP-B) for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[2] CHOP emerged as the regimen with the least toxicity but similar efficacy.

However, in Germany in 2012, bendamustine has displaced [R-]CHOP to become the first line treatment of choice for indolent lymphoma (a less aggressive subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma).[3]

[R]-CHOEP modification[edit]

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In order to develop more effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for aggressive lymphomas, some researchers tried to add (E)toposide to the standard [R]-CHOP regimen.[4]

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There were also attempts to further improve the efficacy of the [R]-CHOEP regimen with escalating the chemotherapy doses. This mode was called [R]-High-CHOEP. However, it did not show more effectiveness than standard-dose [R]-CHOEP while adding more toxicity and cost.[5]

In order to try improving efficacy of the [R]-CHOEP, some researchers tried to escalate chemotherapy to very high doses, requiring autologic stem cell support in each cycle. Doses in that regimen were increased from cycle to cycle. This regimen was called [R]-MegaCHOEP. But again, such escalation seemed to not improve effectiveness while adding toxicity.[6]

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DrugStandard [R]-CHOEP[R]-High-CHOEP[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 1[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycles 2 and 3[R]-Mega-CHOEP, cycle 4 (last)ModeDays
(R)ituximab375 mg/m2375 mg/m2375 mg/m2375 mg/m2375 mg/m2IV infusionDay 1
(C)yclophosphamide750 mg/m21400 mg/m21500 mg/m24500 mg/m26000 mg/m2IV infusionDay 1
(H)ydroxydaunorubicin50 mg/m265 mg/m270 mg/m270 mg/m270 mg/m2IV bolusDay 1
(O)ncovin1.4 mg/m2 (max 2 mg)2 mg2 mg2 mg2 mgIV bolusDay 1
(E)toposide100 mg/m2175 mg/m2600 mg/m2960 mg/m21480 mg/m2IV infusionDays 1-3
(P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone40 mg/m2100 mg500 mg500 mg500 mgPO qdDays 1-5

See also[edit]

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References[edit]

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  1. ^Cullen M, Steven N, Billingham L, Gaunt C, Hastings M, Simmonds P, Stuart N, Rea D, Bower M, Fernando I, Huddart R, Gollins S, Stanley A (2005). 'Antibacterial prophylaxis after chemotherapy for solid tumors and lymphomas'. N Engl J Med. 353 (10): 988–98. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa050078. PMID16148284.
  2. ^Fisher RI, Gaynor ER, Dahlberg S, Oken MM, Grogan TM, Mize EM, Glick JH, Coltman CA Jr, Miller TP (1993). 'Comparison of a standard regimen (CHOP) with three intensive chemotherapy regimens for advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma'. N Engl J Med. 328 (14): 1002–6. doi:10.1056/NEJM199304083281404. PMID7680764.
  1. ^'Nordic Protocol (Maxi-CHOP and High Dose Cytarabine) for Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)'(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2014-09-11. Retrieved 2014-09-11.
  2. ^http://www.macmillan.org.uk/cancerinformation/cancertreatment/treatmenttypes/chemotherapy/combinationregimen/r-chop.aspx
  3. ^New Combo Replaces CHOP for Lymphoma. Dec 2012
  4. ^Two-weekly or 3-weekly CHOP chemotherapy with or without etoposide for the treatment of young patients with good-prognosis (normal LDH) aggressive lymphomas: results of the NHL-B1 trial of the DSHNHL
  5. ^Dose-escalated CHOEP for the treatment of young patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: II. Results of the randomized high-CHOEP trial of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL)
  6. ^Conventional chemotherapy (CHOEP-14) with rituximab or high-dose chemotherapy (MegaCHOEP) with rituximab for young, high-risk patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial (DSHNHL 2002-1)
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