1. Annotatings System In Logos Bible
  2. Annotations In Spring Boot

Simply put, annotations are Java types that are preceded by an “@” symbol. Java has had annotations ever since the 1.5 release. Since then, they've shaped the way we've designed our applications. Spring and Hibernate are great examples of frameworks that rely heavily on annotations to enable various design techniques. Check your annotations to be sure that they make sense to you. Go on to the next section or paragraph. Remember, not every paragraph will have a key concept that should be annotated, but every page or section usually does. How can you study based on this system? Read your annotations. Ask yourself the following.

An annotation is extra information associated with a particular point in a document or other piece of information. It can be a note that includes a comment or explanation.[1] Annotations are sometimes presented in the margin of book pages. For annotations of different digital media, see web annotation and text annotation.

Literature and education[edit]

Textual scholarship[edit]

Textual scholarship is a discipline that often uses the technique of annotation to describe or add additional historical context to texts and physical documents.[2]

Student uses[edit]

Students often highlight passages in books in order to refer back to key phrases easily, or add marginalia to aid studying.

Annotated bibliographies add commentary on the relevance or quality of each source, in addition to the usual bibliographic information that merely identifies the source.


Mathematical expression annotation[edit]

Mathematical expressions (symbols and formulae) can be annotated with their natural language meaning. This is essential for disambiguation, since symbols may have different meanings (e.g., 'E' can be 'energy' or 'expectation value', etc.).[3][4] The annotation process can be facilitated and accelerated through recommendation, e.g., using the 'AnnoMathTeX' system that is hosted by Wikimedia.[5][6][7]

Learning and instruction[edit]

From a cognitive perspective, annotation has an important role in learning and instruction. As part of guided noticing it involves highlighting, naming or labelling and commenting aspects of visual representations to help focus learners' attention on specific visual aspects. In other words, it means the assignment of typological representations (culturally meaningful categories), to topological representations (e.g. images).[8] This is especially important when experts, such as medical doctors, interpret visualizations in detail and explain their interpretations to others, for example by means of digital technology.[9] Here, annotation can be a way to establish common ground between interactants with different levels of knowledge.[10] The value of annotation has been empirically confirmed, for example, in a study which shows that in computer-based teleconsultations the integration of image annotation and speech leads to significantly improved knowledge exchange compared with the use of images and speech without annotation.[11]

On YouTube[edit]

Annotations were removed on January 15, 2019 from YouTube after around a decade of service.[12] They had allowed users to provide information that popped up during videos, but YouTube indicated they did not work well on small mobile screens, and were being abused.

Software and engineering[edit]

Text documents[edit]

Markup languages like XML and HTML annotate text in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from that text. They can be used to add information about the desired visual presentation, or machine-readable semantic information, as in the semantic web.[13]

Source control[edit]

The 'annotate' function (also known as 'blame' or 'praise') used in source control systems such as Git, Team Foundation Server and Subversion determines who committed changes to the source code into the repository. This outputs a copy of the source code where each line is annotated with the name of the last contributor to edit that line (and possibly a revision number). This can help establish blame in the event a change caused a malfunction, or identify the author of brilliant code.

Java annotations[edit]

A special case is the Java programming language, where annotations can be used as a special form of syntactic metadata in the source code.[14] Classes, methods, variables, parameters and packages may be annotated. The annotations can be embedded in class files generated by the compiler and may be retained by the Java virtual machine and thus influence the run-time behaviour of an application. It is possible to create meta-annotations out of the existing ones in Java.

Image annotation[edit]

Automatic image annotation is used to classify images for image retrieval systems.[15]

Computational biology[edit]

Since the 1980s, molecular biology and bioinformatics have created the need for DNA annotation. DNA annotation or genome annotation is the process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.

Digital imaging[edit]

In the digital imaging community the term annotation is commonly used for visible metadata superimposed on an image without changing the underlying master image, such as sticky notes, virtual laser pointers, circles, arrows, and black-outs (cf. redaction).

In the medical imaging community, an annotation is often referred to as a region of interest and is encoded in DICOM format.

Other uses[edit]


Annotatings System In Logos Bible

In the United States, legal publishers such as Thomson West and Lexis Nexis publish annotated versions of statutes, providing information about court cases that have interpreted the statutes. Both the federal United States Code and state statutes are subject to interpretation by the courts, and the annotated statutes are valuable tools in legal research.


One purpose of annotation is to transform the data into a form suitable for computer-aided analysis. Prior to annotation, an annotation scheme is defined that typically consists of tags. During tagging, transcriptionists manually add tags into transcripts where required linguistical features are identified in an annotation editor. The annotation scheme ensures that the tags are added consistently across the data set and allows for verification of previously tagged data.[16] Aside from tags, more complex forms of linguistic annotation include the annotation of phrases and relations, e.g., in treebanks. Many different forms of linguistic annotation have been developed, as well as different formats and tools for creating and managing linguistic annotations, as described, for example, in the Linguistic Annotation Wiki.[17]

See also[edit]

Look up annotation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Comment (various)
  • Obelus, a symbol used on ancient manuscripts to mark passages that were suspected of being corrupted or spurious; the practice of adding such marginal notes became known as obelism.


  1. ^'Definition of ANNOTATION'. www.merriam-webster.com.
  2. ^Greetham, David C.: Textual Scholarship. An Introduction. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1417. New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc. 1994 (1992)
  3. ^Moritz Schubotz; Philipp Scharpf; et al. (12 September 2018). 'Introducing MathQA: a Math-Aware question answering system'. Information Discovery and Delivery. Emerald Publishing Limited. 46 (4): 214–224. arXiv:1907.01642. doi:10.1108/IDD-06-2018-0022. S2CID49484035.
  4. ^Philipp Scharpf; Moritz Schubotz; et al. (2018). 'Representing Mathematical Formulae in Content MathML using Wikidata'.
  5. ^'AnnoMathTeX Formula/Identifier Annotation Recommender System'.
  6. ^Philipp Scharpf; Ian Mackerracher; et al. (17 September 2019). 'AnnoMathTeX : a formula identifier annotation recommender system for STEM documents'(PDF). Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems (RecSys 2019): 532–533. doi:10.1145/3298689.3347042. ISBN9781450362436. S2CID202639987.
  7. ^Philipp Scharpf; Moritz Schubotz; Bela Gipp (14 April 2021). 'Fast Linking of Mathematical Wikidata Entities in Wikipedia Articles Using Annotation Recommendation'(PDF). Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21 Companion). doi:10.1145/3442442.3452348.
  8. ^Pea, R. D. (2006). Video-as-Data and Digital Video Manipulation Techniques for Transforming Learning Sciences Research, Education, and Other Cultural Practices. In J. Weiss, J. Nolan, J. Hunsinger, & P. Trifonas (Eds.), The International Handbook of Virtual Learning Environments (pp. 1321-1393). Dordrecht: Springer
  9. ^Coiera E. Communication spaces. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2013 Sep 4. [doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001520] [Medline: 24005797]
  10. ^Clark HH. Using Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996.
  11. ^Pimmer, C., Mateescu, M., Zahn, C., & Genewein, U. (2013). Smartphones as multimodal communication devices to facilitate clinical knowledge processes - a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(11), e263. doi:10.2196/jmir.2758
  12. ^'YouTube annotations will disappear for good in January'. engadget. 2018-11-27. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
  13. ^'Web Annotation Data Model'. World Wide Web Consortium. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  14. ^'JDK 5.0 Developer's Guide: Annotations'. Sun Microsystems. 2007-12-18. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-05..
  15. ^Zhang, Dengsheng, Md Monirul Islam, and Guojun Lu. 'A review on automatic image annotation techniques.' Pattern Recognition 45.1 (2012): 346-362.
  16. ^'Annotation Schemes CAWSE'(PDF). General Annotation Conventions. 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2019-01-06.
  17. ^'LinguisticAnnotation'. annotation.exmaralda.org.
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Annotation&oldid=1014856579'

What is Annotating?

Annotations definition

Annotating is any action that deliberately interacts with a text to enhance the reader's understanding of, recall of, and reaction to the text. Sometimes called 'close reading,' annotating usually involves highlighting or underlining key pieces of text and making notes in the margins of the text. This page will introduce you to several effective strategies for annotating a text that will help you get the most out of your reading.

Why Annotate?

Annotations In Spring Boot

By annotating a text, you will ensure that you understand what is happening in a text after you've read it. As you annotate, you should note the author's main points, shifts in the message or perspective of the text, key areas of focus, and your own thoughts as you read. However, annotating isn't just for people who feel challenged when reading academic texts. Even if you regularly understand and remember what you read, annotating will help you summarize a text, highlight important pieces of information, and ultimately prepare yourself for discussion and writing prompts that your instructor may give you. Annotating means you are doing the hard work while you read, allowing you to reference your previous work and have a clear jumping-off point for future work.

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